What Does PGT Method Mean?
PGT (Preimplantation Genetic Testing) is a procedure performed in the field of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to examine the genetic structure of embryos before they are transferred. This procedure allows for the detection of any genetic anomalies in the embryos before pregnancy occurs.
By identifying any genetic abnormalities early on, this technique helps prevent the recurrence of failed treatments, miscarriages, or the birth of a child with genetic disorders. In summary, PGT in IVF treatment involves the genetic evaluation of embryos before their transfer.
How is PGT done?
In order to perform PGT on embryos, the standard IVF treatment is applied. This process is similar to routine IVF treatment. The development of the egg cells in the prospective mother is stimulated. Once the eggs reach the desired maturity, egg retrieval and fertilization procedures take place.
After the embryos are formed, a cell sample is taken from the embryo to determine their genetic structure. The main purpose of embryo biopsy is to obtain one or more cells without causing harm to the embryo’s normal growth and development process. It should be noted that this procedure carries a risk of causing harm during the intervention. However, when performed by experienced personnel, this risk is much lower than the risk associated with amniocentesis.
According to the preparation protocol, the materials obtained after the biopsy are examined for the specific disease, and it is determined whether the embryos from which the cells were taken are suitable for transfer. Embryos deemed suitable for pregnancy based on their development results and genetic analysis are selected for embryo transfer. Embryos identified as genetically “healthy” are transferred to a suitable uterine environment using fresh or frozen embryo transfer methods.
The PGT method is particularly recommended for couples in certain risk groups, such as women of advanced age, women with recurrent miscarriages, and couples carrying genetic diseases. This helps minimize the risk of transmitting genetic diseases.
What Diseases Does PGT Test for?
PGT can be applied for all known genetic diseases with identified genetic mutations/disorders that cause the respective diseases.
In Which Situations Is PGT Applied?
Couples may be candidates for PGT based on infertility diagnosis and the patient’s condition in the following situations:
- If they have experienced two or more unsuccessful IVF attempts despite having good embryo quality.
- If they have a history of two or more miscarriages.
- If the prospective mother is over 37 years old.
- If one of the partners has a structural chromosomal anomaly.
- If they have a history of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies.
In these cases, PGT can be applied as a potential solution.
PGD in Rare Genetic Disease Carriage
Evaluation of the current genetic disease carrier status in the family:
In order to detect the genetic pathology of embryos and apply this technology, the specific genetic condition should be thoroughly examined in the couples. Hundreds of genetic diseases with known mutations can be analyzed in embryos through routine practices.
However, there are also various genetic diseases that do not follow the classical Mendelian genetics and therefore cannot be analyzed with absolute accuracy using current technology. Therefore, it is crucial to discuss and evaluate the specific genetic condition between the couples and with specialists.
Preparation for analysis at the single cell level:
If the genetic condition or disease has been clinically diagnosed, the mutation or gene disorder causing the disease should be detected and documented in all individuals within the family using advanced molecular genetic techniques. Subsequently, based on the results, the inheritance pattern and form of the mutations are analyzed and identified with high accuracy.
Since the diagnosis is at the single-cell level, several additional genetic regions are examined and included in the preparation process to minimize the error rate. This preparation stage, known as the SETUP phase, is the most important and time-consuming part of the entire treatment package, which can take several days or weeks depending on the genetic complexity of the disease.
How Many Embryos Are Required for PGD?
PGT can be applied to a single embryo, but it is preferred to have a larger number of embryos to increase the chances of success and provide more selection options. In cases where the number of eggs or embryos is low, embryo banking can be performed before PGT to accumulate more embryos for analysis.
How Much is PGT?
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